Different variations of bouillabaisse abound along the Mediterranean coast – every village seems to have its own version – and almost any combination of fish and shellfish can be used.
It helps for people to know that bouillabaisse du pecheur was originally prepared using sea water, which was boiled up on the beach while the fishermen were untangling their nets. When the water boiled, in went the fish that were destined for the soup, along with fennel, tomatoes and so on, to cook. Once the work of untangling the nets was done, the bouillabaisse would be ready and the fishermen and their families could sit down and eat. It was only later that the original bouillabaisse underwent the various refinements that we use today.
It is worth pointing out that spiny lobster can never be seen as an essential ingredient of bouillabaisse, because it was originally a very simple dish to use up the fish that were either damaged or had not been sold. It might be stretched to feed all the family by adding potatoes.
There are certain ground rules that must be adhered to:
- The freshness of the fish is the prime rule.
- The variety and quantity of fish contributes decisively to the quantity of the stock on which the soup is based. All the fish are cooked fresh to order.
- Pure, genuine saffron is essential (strictly speaking, neither paprika nor herbs of Provence add anything of benefit to a bouillabaisse).
- 2-3 pound white fish, such as sea bass, basa, snapper, or monkfish filled and skinned (choose thick fish)
- 3 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
- grated rind of one orange
- 1 garlic clove, very finely chopped
- pinch of saffron threads
- 2 tbsp Pernod (or other anise flavored liqueur)
- 1 small fennel bulb, finely chopped
- 1 large onion, finely chopped
- ½ pound small new potatoes, sliced
- 1 pound mussels
- 1 dozen small clams
- croutons, to serve
For the stock:
- 2-3 pound fish heads, bones and trimmings
- 2 tbsp olive oil
- 2 leeks, sliced
- 1 onion halved and sliced
- 1 red bell pepper, cored and sliced
- 1 ½ ponds ripe tomatoes, cored and quartered
- 4 garlic cloves, sliced
- bouquet garni
- rind of ½ orange, removed with a vegetable peeler
- 2 or 3 pinches of saffron threads
For The Rouille:
- 2/3 cup soft white breadcrumbs
- 1 or 2 garlic cloves very finely chopped
- ½ red bell pepper roasted
- 1 tsp tomato paste
- ½ cup extra virgin oil
Cut the fish fillets into serving pieces, then trim off any thin parts and reserve for the stock. Put the fish in a bowl with 2 tbsp of the olive oil, orange rind, garlic, saffron, and liqueur. Turn to coat well, cover and chill.
To make the stock: Mix the fish heads and bones under cold running water. Heat the olive oil in a large, preferable stainless steel, saucepan or flameproof casserole. Add the leeks, onion and pepper and cook over medium heat for about 5 minutes until the onion starts to soften, stirring occasionally. Add the fish heads, bones, and trimmings, with any heads or shells from the shrimp. Then add the tomatoes, garlic, orange rind, saffron and enough cold water to cover the ingredients by 1 inch.
Bring to a boil, skimming any foam that rises to the surface, then reduce the heat and simmer, covered for ½ hour, skimming once or twice more. Strain the stock.
To make the rouille: Soak the breadcrumbs in water then squeeze dry. Put the breadcrumbs in a food processor with the garlic, roasted red bell pepper and tomato paste and process until smooth. With the machine running, slowly pour the oil through the feed tube scraping down the sides once or twice.
To finish the bouillabaisse: Heat the remaining 1 tbsp of olive oil in a wide fireproof casserole over a medium heat. Cook the fennel and onion for about 5 minutes until the onion just softens then add the stock. Bring to a boil add the potatoes and cook for 5-7 minutes. Reduce the heat to medium and add the fish, starting with the thickest pieces and adding thinner ones after 2 or 3 minutes. Add the mussels and clams and continue simmering gently until all the fish and shellfish are cooked.